Another begging dolphin: Backpack

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The Coastal and Estuarine Dolphin Project (CEDP) collects photo-identification, behavioural, and longitudinal data to support the long-term conservation of bottlenose dolphins in metropolitan waters of Perth, Western Australia.

The beggars

The illegal feeding of dolphins is a key conservation issue for dolphins in the Perth area. Finn et al. (2008) reported 14 dolphins resident in Cockburn Sound exhibiting behaviours indicative of being conditioned to human interaction by food reinforcement (e.g., approaching and remaining in close proximity to the research boat). Analysis of scarring rates found that dolphins that interacted with humans for food (i.e., “beggars”) are at greater risk of entanglement and boat strikes than other dolphins (Donaldson et al. 2010). Donaldson et al. (2012) also found that social learning influenced whether dolphins learned to interact  with humans for food, particularly among male associates.

In our winter 2012 season, the adult male Backpack – not previously known as a beggar – has approached close our research boat on three different occasions (once in Cockburn Sound and twice in the Swan Canning Riverpark).

Backpack is an old male (first seen in 1993), resident in Cockburn Sound and recently observed up to Freshwater Bay in the Swan Canning Riverpark. He mainly associates with Fingers, another old male (first seen in 1993) who has also shown similar ‘begging’ behaviour. This apparent change in their behaviour has two components:

1- The recent exhibition of ‘begging’ behaviour by both dolphins (neither was reported as a “beggar” dolphins during previous studies dating back to 1993); and

2- The recent expansion of their home range with observations of the two in the middle sections of the Swan Canning Riverpark.

 

Summary of winter 2012 surveys

 

Product catching a fish

During our winter 2012 season, we encountered 31 groups of dolphins (compared to 24 during our previous winter season) in 5 cycles (a cycle is completed when the four areas – Cockburn Sound, Owen Anchorage, Gage Road, and the Swan Canning Riverpark – are surveyed). Group encountered doubled in winter 2012 (n = 6 in winter 2011 and n = 13 in winter 2012). However, we identified more individuals in winter 2011 (n = 182) than in winter 2012 (n= 127).

 

Tupac & her calf Gizmo

In addition, we surveyed the Swan Canning Riverpark 4 more times (i.e., not part of a cycle) and encountered 13 dolphin groups.

Among the dolphin we observed within the Swan Canning Riverpark were: Blackwall; Tworakes & her calf Zari; Print & Extreme (a suspected male alliance); Tupac & her calf Gizmo (who has recovered well from his entanglement); and Resource & her calf Product .

 

This research is made possible through the support of a variety of corporate, government, and community partners including volunteers from the Dolphin Watch project, Fremantle Ports, and the Swan River Trust.

 

For related references please see:

Donaldson, R., Finn, H. and Calver, M., 2010. Illegal feeding increases risk of boat-strike and entanglement in bottlenose dolphins in Perth, Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 16: 157-161.

Donaldson, R., Finn, H., Bejder, L., Lusseau, D. and Calver, M., 2012. The social side of human-wildlife interaction: wildlife can learn harmful behaviours from each other. Animal Conservation 15: 427-435.

Finn, H., Donalson, R. and Calver, M., 2008. Feeding Flipper: a case study of a human-dolphin interaction. Pacific Conservation Biology 14: 215-225.

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